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  2. Poisonous fruits
  3. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants of Tehsil Kotli Sattian, District Rawalpindi


Ahmed et al. It is possible to calculated the cost of production of fruit plants and major alleviate poverty and improve living standards of the farming crops whereas some other estimated about the chemical community through diversification of high value fruit and composition, shelf life of vegetable crop Shakeel et al. It is reported by Ahmed production is on modern lines through FFS approach. In the year area vegetables through tunnel technology and usage of hybrid under all fruits in the Punjab was Minimizing the use with an annual production of Area in of pesticides through integrated pest management.

Pakistan under all fruits was Area under citrus orchards. Training Table 1: Distribution of the respondents regarding their of farming community with modern marketing techniques is gender. Promotion of grapes and peach cultivation in Female 27 Total There should be motivation of private were male and about quarter There lies a silver lining in the process that get onion production training from the training center.

Few farmers are unaware of the importance of this technical 4. One of the reasons of poor regarding pulses, 2. Very few 1. The respondents demanded that they need kitchen gardening and need for capital availability and financing for their business groundnut training, and 0. Due to capital finger, potato, garlic, cold storage, mango, maize and chilies. Inaccessibility to upcoming Table 2: Distribution of the respondents regarding their technology and innovation for the farmers is another reason.

Hence, this study was conducted Wheat 52 Pulses 05 4. Rawalpindi is one of the important districts of the Maize 01 0. The total area of the district is Fruit and vegetables 02 1. It consists of seven tehsils namely Gujar Lady finger 01 0. The data were collected from Groundnut 02 1. Six Cold storage 01 0. A sample of Potato 01 0. Questions were prepared in English Farmers were asked regarding their participation in FFS but were asked in the local language for proper understanding activities and the responses are displayed in Table 3 given of the respondents.


Results were analyzed through Statistical below. It indicates that an overwhelming majority The results are shown in Table 1. Furthermore, Hussain and J. Published in collaboration with that they did not actively participated in insects identification the economic and policy analysis project Chemonics and preparation of recommendation chart, 5.

Agriculture Statistic of Pakistan. Training needs assessment of cotton growers used in FFS trainings. Hons Agri. Javed, A. Screening of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in wastewater, vegetables and humans. Posters 21 Flip charts 57 Developing staff development strategy for Pamphlets 42 Conclusions: Training regarding the cultivation of fruits and Memon, M. Economic competencies needed and vegetables is not the main demand of the respondents.

However, factory made leather merchandise have reduced these skilled people into either repairmen or they also gave up and joined the industrial lives in cities. They meet local needs. The farmers were supposed to harvest the land and produce grain. Then each farmer would share a portion of his produce with blacksmith, weaver, cobbler, barber, beggars, etc. This was a kind of primitive communism where money was non-existence till late s in some far-flung parts of Himalayas.

All these people lived in perfect harmony and were considered a unit or braderi brotherhood. Such society was organized around strict caste system. The castes were mainly a division of labor and well integrated as a surviving unit. Their losses and gains were shared. The blacksmith knew that if he did not maintain the tools in good conditions then the produce would be affected that would affect his share. And farmer knew that he was nothing without other skilled workers of the society.

All these primitive relations have drastically changed in past few decades. The life full of trust and love was void of money. And a life full of money is definitely void of these great human values. However, the society was also stagnant and lost differentials to move forward. The Justice System: The tribal justice system is far superior to the colonial court rules. The objective of the justice system was to maintain a healthy and fair but a delicate social fabric for citizens of the tribe. The system would work like this.

If a dispute arises between party A and party B then both would try to resolve themselves. If the matter was irresolvable then the complaining party would inform the other of date, time and place for Jirga. Both parties would request their respective elders for participation.

Both parties would explain their grievances. After hearing and questioning both parties, each will elect either one or two representatives with one neutral head. They will negotiate the settlement which would have least brunt on any one and acceptable to both parties A and B.

The objective to reestablish friendship or maintain relationship so that both can live amicably. The whole process was quick, fair, free of any financial burden, full of respect and at the end brought back the effected together. Both parties would be asked to hug and shake hands. Both would give up any hatred and enmity. Sometimes such gestures would lead to new relationship between two opponents. Most of the murder cases are still decided based on this system.

That is one reason that one who would commit homicide would never run away from law. All those who committed murder would always take their weapon and report that they have committed this crime. Not a single out of over a dozen one who had committed murder that I personally know ran away from the law. And none of those were hanged as the matter was amicably settled.

On the other side are the courts which start with bribes and insults by police. It is a system of business run by corporate machine. The police and some lawyers have agents who instigate people to take the matters to courts. However, most severe cases return to Jirga for final settlements. Religion: It appears that Sattis, like other local tribes, had informal religious tendencies.

They were mainly pagans who would bury their dead and build convents.

They revered trees and still hold them sacred. It is a good practice at this time of environmental chaos. It is known that Sattis converted to Islam after meeting a saint. He is known as Berri Imam and buried in Islamabad. Then they would mix this curded blood with corn flour and serve it as a delicacy to their guests.

Eating blood was prohibited in Islam and they gave up this practice couple generations ago. Today most Sattis are Sunni Muslims although there are some Wahabis who have been mainly influenced by the Arabian culture. Economics: A great deal of information about this region can be obtained from the handbook written by Professor Sabir Satti. Education: The people of the region have great love and respect for knowledge.

This tendency is equally found in all inhabitants of the region.

Poisonous fruits

Kethwal tribe has produced highly educated bureaucrats and diplomats. Dhunds have produce world-class business executives and religious scholars. Sattis have produce good scientists and doctors. Daniel tribe has produced good politicians and businessmen. The Martial race: People inhibiting harsh mountain terrains naturally grow tough and endure a great deal of physical hardship. There is no written history about military adventures of the tribe in the region. Each tribe tells anecdotal stories about their bravery and achievements. There was nothing to conquer in these mountains. The land was plentiful and it would take all the energy to wrestle nature for simple survival.

However, there are some stories of conflicts in the region.

Maulana Kauser Niazi has recorded one such conflict. Maulana Niazi wrote about Berri Imam and his adventure in Sattian area. According to Maulana, Berri Imam directed and commanded Satti army to fight idolaters in the region. According to Maulana, the idol worshippers, Dhunds, were defeated and Islam was spread in the region. Local people, as a folklore also known as Seena Gazette or oral news, tell the flip side of this story. He used to live and meditate in forest. One day he visited the home of Mr. In olden days man carried only one name.

Berri Imam asked for water. When water was presented to Imam, he washed his hands, face and feet. Then he offered prayer. This made Mr. Sher very angry. Sher told his guest that it was rude to use water to wash his hands, face and feet as his wife had to walk thousands of yards downhill to fetch it. At this anger, Berri Imam asked the host to accompany him.

In nearby slope, Berri Imam asked him to dig. Water started oozing out after a shallow dig. Sher and other spectators considered this as a miracle and apologized Berri Imam. Berri Imam then told about his faith and invited them to join Islam. Sooner most of the Sattis followed Berri Imam and accepted Islam.

Berri Imam also extended this invitation to Dhund tribe. Dhunds refused to accept this offer. Then Berri Imam told the local people that now Jihad was their duty to fight those who were offered Islam but rejected it. Initially Satti refused to go on fight against their fellow tribe. They told Berri Imam that Dhunds were greater in numbers, occupy strategic places and were powerful. The story goes that at that time Berri Imam prayed and said God will help you if you are righteous. There is no doubt that Berri Imam had directed this conflict but it was more like a feud than any large-scale war.

Further it was confined to one region and probably was fought with sticks and swords. And it was customary for people to move away from a troublesome spot. And also it was just a local dispute that used to be routine conflict in mountains. However the news of this event spread around and helped bring Sattis into militancy. But the truth remains that today Dhunds have more Islamic seminaries and religious scholars than Sattis have. Mountain tribes in Murree, Kahuta and Kotli Sattian, like people in the entire mountain regions, were averse to slavery. They lived fiercely independent lives since day one.

It was known as Aap Raji or self-rule. However, different governments tried to subjugate these tribes from time to time with little success. The turning point arrived during Sikh rule which saw unprecedented atrocities carried out by Sikh armies against mountain tribes. The head of a Satti man was worth five rupees, a male boy two rupees and a child bearing woman was worth one rupee. Sattis used to call Sikhs as Lal Khors or red cannibals. Sattis were confined to higher reaches which were almost outside the approach of Sikh armies.

However it forced Sattis to develop a complete self-sufficient lifestyle. They developed their own agriculture, hand mills, water mills, ploughs, etc. But they were deprived of any access to education, health or other civil amenities. This historic treatment is still meted out to them by the present rulers in Islamabad. The entire Tehsil Kotli Sattian region has no college just one higher secondary school. On the other side of the border in Azad Kashmir, the Poonch district liberated in has universities, postgraduate colleges for males and females, teacher-training institutes, Cadet College etc.

When British and Sikh fought each other Sattis naturally sided with British and Sikhs were finally defeated with the combined efforts of Sattis and British Indian army soldiers. The papers of Sikh surrender were signed at Rawalpindi. Sikhs also meted out similar punishments to other tribes who gallantly fought back them in the entire mountain ranges. The British declared Sattis as martial race and would happily recruit them in their army. The rivalries with Sikhs and subsequent alliance with Brits brought Sattis into regular military profession. Martial race does not prove that the other tribes had less fighting capabilities.

It was partially political, partially economical and partially historical. This served them least in these mountains as tribes in these regions seldom fell prey to such machinations. Economically army was the only viable profession for Sattis to survive. The land was not fertile enough to satisfy the growing needs of the region. And historically Sattis had been serving in Dogras army when these regions were part of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. However, their militant skills paid off big time when an armed struggle was launched in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in On the other side of the river was his son-in-law, Shukar Muhammad Satti, who coordinated the operation to safely transport arms and ammunition across river Jehlum.

Ethnobotany of medicinal plants of Tehsil Kotli Sattian, District Rawalpindi

Young Satti and Sudhen men swam across freezing river Jehlum and successfully managed to supply weapons to warriors and participated in the fight. The first attack was carried out against Dogra army unit stationed at Thorar.

The warriors successfully climbed the rear vertical cliff of the army posts by using ropes and vines made of local shrubs. The enemy was ambushed from behind which left him bewildered with significant causalities.