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The Rise and Fall of Mode of Production. Dependency and Class. Class Struggle. Political Determination. Skl in seminal article introduced wholly new dimension implicit in various earlier contributions in transferring the dynamic of class formation out of the economic and into the political realm Drawing upon the Ossowski observation that in both State socialist and advanced capitalist settings control over the means of consumption and means of compulsion must be included in class determination he makes the critical assertion class relations at bottom are determined by rela tions of power not production ibid.
Class as Contextual. Class Categories. These Leys observations may serve as useful bridge to the next issue the specific debates which have arisen hinging upon the major categories of class analysis However valiantly one struggles against the reduction. Class and Ethnicity. An invisible wall has separated ethnicity and class analysis which has only infrequently been scaled The barrier is high partly because of the bifurcation of scholarship into liberal and radical streams and related differences in underlying epistemologies On both sides of the wall analysts tend to concede that the other exists then proceed to ignore or trivialize it Ethnicity and class are autonomous determinants of social action this must be conceded for any fruitful synthesis to occur Neither can be reduced without banalization to simple derivative of the other They differ in the forms of consciousness evoked and the social idiom through which they are expressed Ethnicity an affective phenomenon by definition is more readily mobilized through mechanisms well explored in the literature Class because it is founded upon economic.
State Versus Ethnic Claims Mode of Production Nigeria Modernization Political Parties This essay was originally commissioned by the Africa Committee of the US Social Science Research Council SSRC as part of its series of critical reviews of major topics Africanist scholarship Ultimately the Committee decided not to proceed with the project would like to record my appreciation to the SSRC for its initial stimulus to undertake this project would also wish to acknowledge with deep gratitude the invaluable critical comments on an earlier draft received from Bogumi Jewsiewicki Richard Skl Aidan Southall Nzongola Ntalaja Michael Schatzberg Ralph Young Fred Hayward and the graduate students of the Department of Political Science of the University of Wisconsin Madison They are all entitled to the customary absolution of any share of the blame for whatever deficiencies survived their scrutiny.
The liberation struggle in South Africa of course confronts ruling racial oligarchy of colonial origin resulting from European conquest and maintains itself in power through the apparatus of State initially fashioned as vehicle for colonial rule However since rule as been exercised by White oligarchy that views itself as indigenous and permanent.
Uganda was another instance where particularly at the time of decolonization claim to self-determination rights was advanced by an ethnic community the Ganda However Buganda nationalism was justified in terms of asserted legal entitlements of the kingdom and not directly grounded in ethnicity This special character of Ganda self-determination demands is reflected in the analysis it attracted APTER hinges his then influential study of Buganda entirely upon kingship and offers no exploration of Ganda ethnic consciousness.
In , a very public crusade against opium was in full swing throughout China, and the provincial capital and treaty port of Fuzhou was a central stage for the campaign. This volume attempts to reconcile that apparent contradiction. The Analects Lunyu is one of the most influential texts in human history. As a foundational text in scriptural Confucianism, it was instrumental in shaping intellectual traditions in China and East Asia. But no premodern reader read only the text of the Analects itself. Rather, the Analects was embedded in a web of interpretation that mediated its meaning.
Modern interpreters of the Analects only rarely acknowledge this legacy of two thousand years of commentaries. This book attempts to redress our neglect of commentaries by analyzing four key works dating from the late second century to the mid-nineteenth century. A house is a site, the bounds and focus of a community.
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This book takes the Japanese house in both senses, as site and as artifact, and explores the spaces, commodities, and conceptions of community associated with it in the modern era. This book deals with the poetic configurations of the private garden in cities from the ninth to the eleventh century in relation to the development of the private sphere in Chinese literati culture. The concepts, definitions, and interpretations of property rights, corporate structures, and business practices in contemporary China have historical, institutional, and cultural roots.
Among the earliest and most radical of the Meiji reforms was a plan for a centralized, compulsory educational system modeled after those in Europe and America. But commoners throughout Japan had established 50, schools with almost no guidance or support from the government. Consequently, the plan met with resistance, as local officials, teachers, and citizens pursued alternative educational visions. Their efforts ultimately led to the growth and consolidation of a new educational system, one with the imprint of local demands and expectations.
This book explores how memories of the past become traditions, and the role of these traditions in the institutional development of the noh theater from its beginnings in the fourteenth century through the late twentieth century. The author argues that the traditions that form the ethos of noh, such as those surrounding masks and manuscripts, are the key traits that define it as an art. This book examines the Nanjing decade of Guomindang rule — and the early post-Mao reform era — of Chinese history that have commonly been viewed as periods of state disintegration or retreat.
And they were—at the central level. When reexamined at the local level, however, both are revealed as periods of state building. By viewing Taiwan—China relations as a product of the history of Qing expansionism, the author contributes to our understanding of current political events in the region. This book examines the Chinese opium crisis from the perspective of Qing prohibition efforts.
The author argues that opium prohibition, and not the opium wars, was genuinely imperial in scale and is hence much more representative of the actual drug problem faced by Qing administrators. The study of prohibition also permits a more comprehensive and accurate observation of the economics and criminology of opium. The eleven chapters in this volume explore the process of carving out, in discourse and in practice, the boundaries delineating the state, the civil sphere, and the family in Japan from to One of the central themes in the volume is the demarcation of relations between the central political authorities and local communities.
Mount Tai in northeastern China has long been a sacred site. Throughout history, it has been a magnet for both women and men from all classes—emperors, aristocrats, officials, literati, and villagers. This book examines the behavior of those who made the pilgrimage to Mount Tai and their interpretations of its sacrality and history, as a means of better understanding their identities and mentalities.
What is the relationship between ethics and history in the study of literature? Dedicated to the idea that the socialist aspiration for economic equality could be combined with a classical liberal commitment to individual political and civil rights, he antagonized both Marxists and Japanese nationalists. This is the first study of Kawai in English. This book offers ethnographic case studies on the symbolic qualities of idols and how they relate to the conceptualization of self among adolescents. Trauma and Transcendence in Early Qing Literature.
The collapse of the Ming dynasty and the Manchu conquest of China were traumatic experiences for Chinese intellectuals. The 12 chapters in this volume and the introductory essays on early Qing poetry, prose, and drama understand the writings of this era wholly or in part as attempts to recover from or transcend the trauma of the transition years. The Meiji Restoration of inaugurated a period of great change in Japan; it is seldom associated, however, with advances in civil and political rights. By studying parliamentarianism—the theories, arguments, and polemics marshaled in support of a representative system of government— Kim uncovers a much more complicated picture of this era.
The past becomes readable when we can tell stories and make arguments about it. When we can tell more than one story or make divergent arguments, the readability of the past then becomes an issue. Therein lies the beginning of history, the sense of inquiry that heightens our awareness of interpretation. What are the possibilities and limits of historical knowledge? Kokugaku , or nativism, was one of the most important intellectual movements from the seventeenth through the nineteenth century in Japan, and its worldview continues to be influential today.
The sixteen chapters in this volume treat men as well as women, theories of sexuality as well as gender prescriptions, and same-sex as well as heterosexual relations in the period from to the present. Together, these essays construct a history informed by the idea that gender matters because it was part of the experience of people and because it often has been a central feature in the construction of modern ideologies, discourses, and institutions. Separately, each chapter examines how Japanese have en gendered their ideas, institutions, and society.
Normalization of U. Relations between China and the United States have been of central importance to both countries over the past half-century, as well as to all states affected by that relationship. The eight chapters in this volume offer the first multinational, multi-archival review of the history of Chinese—American conflict and cooperation in the s.
This book argues that the study of Western medicine was a dynamic activity that brought together doctors from all over the country in efforts to effect social change. By examining the social impact of Western learning at the level of everyday life rather than simply its impact at the theoretical level, the book offers a broad picture of the way in which Western medicine, and Western knowledge, was absorbed and adapted in Japan. Native-place lodges are often cited as an example of the particularistic ties that characterized traditional China and worked against the emergence of a modern state based on loyalty to the nation.
The author argues that by fostering awareness of membership in an elite group, the native-place lodges generated a sense of belonging to a nation that furthered the reforms undertaken in the early twentieth century. This book presents two histories of the early Korean kingdom of Paekche trad. The first, written by Best , is based largely on primary sources. Distinctive female dress styles, gender divisions of labor, and powerful same-sex networks have long distinguished villages in this coastal region of southeastern China from other rural Han communities.
This book asks what such practices have come to mean in a post socialist order that has incorporated forms of marriage, labor, and dress into a developmental scale extending from the primitive to the civilized. Advertising Tower: Japanese Modernism and Modernity in the s. The activities of Japanese advertisers helped to define a new urban aesthetic emerging in the s. This book examines some of the responses of Japanese authors to the transformation of Tokyo in the early decades of the twentieth century. Lipkin exposes the process of social engineering and the ways in which the suppressed reacted to their abuse; he puts the poor at the center of the picture, defying efforts to make them invisible.
This study adopts a double approach to the poetry composed between the end of the first century B. It examines extant material from this period synchronically, as if it were not historically arranged. It also considers how the scholars of the late fifth and early sixth centuries selected this material and reshaped it to produce the standard account of classical poetry. Compiled in at the court of the kingdom of Shu, the Huajian ji is the earliest extant collection of lyrics by literati poets. This study of Chinese women in the book trade begins with three case studies, each of which probes one facet of the relationship between women and fiction in the early nineteenth century.
Building on these case studies, the second half of the book focuses on the many sequels to the Dream of the Red Chamber and the significance of this novel for women. As Ellen Widmer shows, by the end of the century, women became increasingly involved in the novel as critical readers, writers, and editors. Owen analyzes the redirection of poetry following the deaths of the major poets of the High and Mid-Tang and the rejection of their poetic styles. In the Late Tang, the poetic past was beginning to assume the form it would have for the next millennium—a repertoire of styles, genres, and the voices of past poets.
Founded in the s, the Xuehaitang Sea of Learning Hall was a premier academy of its time. Miles examines the discourse that portrayed it as having radically altered Guangzhou literati culture. This book discusses the interaction of this demand and the earlyth-century Latin American independence movements, changes in the world economy, the resulting disruptions in the Qing dynasty, and the transformation from the High Qing to modern China. These changes built on basic transformations within the Buddhist and classicist traditions and sometimes resulted in the use of Buddhism and Buddhist temples as frames of reference to evaluate aspects of lay society.
As a study of Confucian government in action, this intellectual history describes a mode of public policy discussion far less dominated by the Confucian scriptures than expected. By analyzing discourses of agency and fatalism and the ethical import of narrative structures, Knight explores how representations of determinism and moral responsibility changed over the twentieth century.
War Memory and Social Politics in Japan, — Japan has long wrestled with the memories of World War II. Franziska Seraphim traces the activism of five civic organizations to examine the ways in which diverse organized memories have secured legitimate niches within the public sphere. Forty lessons introducing students to the basic patterns and structures of Classical Chinese are taken from a number of pre-Han and Han texts selected to give students a grounding in exemplary Classical Chinese style.
Two additional lessons use texts from later periods to help students appreciate the changes in written Chinese over the centuries. By examining the obscured histories of publication, circulation, and reception of widely consumed literary works from late Edo to the early Meiji period, Zwicker traces a genealogy of the literary field across a long nineteenth century: one that stresses continuities between the generic conventions of early modern fiction and the modern novel. Sibao today is a cluster of impoverished villages in the mountains of western Fujian. But from the late seventeenth through the early twentieth centuries, it was home to a flourishing publishing industry supplying much of south China through itinerant booksellers.
From the mid-seventeenth to the mid-nineteenth century, millions of Korean men trained for the state military examination, or mukwa. But few were actually appointed as military officials after passing the test.
Scholars of European history assert that war makes states, just as states make war. This study finds that in China, the challenges of governing produced a trajectory of state-building in which the processes of moral and social control were at least as central to state-making as the exercise of coercive power. Looking at the activities of Taoist clerics in Peking, this book explores the workings of religion as a profession in one Chinese city during a period of dramatic modernization.
The author focuses on ordinary religious professionals, most of whom remained obscure temple employees, showing that these Taoists were neither the socially despised illiterates dismissed in so many studies, nor otherworldly ascetics, but active participants in the religious economy of the city. The Tale of Genji has eclipsed the works of later Heian authors, who have since been displaced from the canon and relegated to obscurity.
The author calls for a reevaluation of late Heian fiction by shedding new light on this undervalued body of work and examining three representative texts as legitimate heirs to the literary legacy of Genji. During the sengoku era in Japan, warlords and religious institutions vied for supremacy, with powerhouses such as The Honganji branch of Jodo Shinshu Buddhism fanning violent uprisings of ikko ikki , bands of commoners fighting for various causes. Tsang delves into the complex relationship between these ikko leagues and the Honganji institution, arguing for a fuller picture of ikko ikki as a force in medieval Japanese history.
Between and , the Qianlong emperor embarked upon six southern tours, traveling from Beijing to Jiangnan and back.
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This study elucidates the tensions and the constant negotiations characterizing the relationship between the imperial center and Jiangnan, which straddled the two key provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang. This book reconstructs civic education and citizenship training in secondary schools in the lower Yangzi region during the Republican era. Analyzing textbooks, examination questions and essays, and official and private commentary, Hilde De Weerdt examines how occupational, political, and intellectual groups shaped curricular standards and examination criteria during the Southern Song dynasty — , and how examination standards in turn shaped political and intellectual agendas.
These questions reframe the debate about the civil service examinations and their place in the imperial order. From his birth into the lowest stratum of the samurai class to his assassination by right-wing militarists, Takahashi Korekiyo — lived through tumultuous times that shaped the course of modern Japan. This biography underscores the profound influence of the charismatic finance minister on the political and economic development of Japan.
This study also examines how ordinary rural residents have made sense of and participated in the industrialization engulfing them in recent decades. The Great Depression was a global phenomenon: every economy linked to international financial and commodity markets suffered. The aim of this book is not merely to show that China could not escape the consequences of drastic declines in financial flows and trade but also to offer a new perspective for understanding modern Chinese history.
This collection of essays reveals the Ming court as an arena of competition and negotiation, where a large cast of actors pursued individual and corporate ends, personal agency shaped protocol and style, and diverse people, goods, and tastes converged. Murakami Haruki is perhaps the best-known and most widely translated Japanese author of his time. For these artists, literary modernism was a crisis of perception before it was a crisis of representation.
When Our Eyes No Longer See portrays an extraordinary moment in the history of this perceptual crisis and in Japanese literature during the s and s. South Korea is home to some of the largest evangelical Protestant congregations in the world. This book investigates the meaning of—and the reasons behind—a particular aspect of contemporary South Korean evangelicalism: the intense involvement of middle-class women. The literary career of Uchida Hyakken — encompassed a wide variety of styles and genres. Writers of late imperial fiction and drama were, Lu argues, deeply engaged with questions about the nature of the Chinese empire and of the human community.
This book traces how these political questions were addressed in fiction through extreme situations: husbands and wives torn apart in periods of political upheaval, families so disrupted that incestuous encounters become inevitable, times so desperate that people have to sell themselves to be eaten. It further traces the formation over the last millennium of the imperial state of a critical communal self-consciousness. This volume focuses on tropes of visuality and gender to reflect on shifting understandings of the significance of Chineseness, modernity, and Chinese modernity.
Through detailed readings of narrative works by eight authors of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the study identifies three distinct constellations of visual concerns corresponding to the late imperial, mid-twentieth century, and contemporary periods, respectively. Tao Yuanming ?
This study of the posthumous reputation of a central figure in Chinese literary history, the mechanisms at work in the reception of his works, and the canonization of Tao himself and of particular readings of his works sheds light on the transformation of literature and culture in premodern China. Bolton explores how this reconciliation of ideas and dialects is for Abe part of the process whereby texts and individuals form themselves—a search for identity that occurs at the level of the self and society at large.
This study revolves around the career of Kobayashi Hideo — , one of the seminal figures in the history of modern Japanese literary criticism, whose interpretive vision was forged amidst the cultural and ideological crises that dominated intellectual discourse between the s and the s. Following the end of World War II in Asia, the Allied powers repatriated over six million Japanese nationals and deported more than a million colonial subjects from Japan. Watt analyzes how the human remnants of empire served as sites of negotiation in the process of jettisoning the colonial project and in the creation of new national identities.
Chinese officials put considerable effort into managing the fiscal and legal affairs of their jurisdictions, but they also devoted significant time and energy to performing religious rituals on behalf of the state. This groundbreaking study explores this underappreciated aspect of Chinese political life by investigating rainmaking activities organized or conducted by local officials in the Qing dynasty. The narrative is framed around the terms identity, community, and masculinity. As the author shows, the Uyghurs of Yining, a city in the Xinjiang region of China, express a set of individual and collective identities organized around place, gender, family relations, friendships, occupation, and religious practice.
Eyferth charts the vicissitudes of a rural community of papermakers in Sichuan, tracing the changes in the distribution of knowledge that led to a massive transfer of technical control from villages to cities, from primary producers to managerial elites, and from women to men. This book describes the ritual world of a group of rural settlements in Shanxi province in pre North China.
The great festivals were their supreme collective achievements, carried out virtually without aid from local officials or educated elites. Newly discovered manuscripts allow Johnson to reconstruct the festivals in unprecedented detail. This book explores the Daoist encounter with modernity through the activities of Chen Yingning — , a famous lay Daoist master, and his group in early twentieth-century Shanghai. In contrast to the usual narrative of Daoist decay, with its focus on monastic decline, clerical corruption, and popular superstitions, this study tells a story of Daoist resilience, reinvigoration, and revival.
Throughout Chinese history mountains have been integral components of the religious landscape. Early in Chinese history a set of five mountains were co-opted into the imperial cult and declared sacred peaks, yue , demarcating and protecting the boundaries of the Chinese imperium. The author shows that the predominant forms of protest were directed not against the landowning class but against agents of the state, and suggests that twentieth-century Chinese peasants were less different from seventeenth- or eighteenth-century French peasants than might be imagined and points to continuities between pre- and post rural protest.
Sovereignty at the Edge: Macau and the Question of Chineseness. How have conceptions and practices of sovereignty shaped how Chineseness is imagined? This ethnography addresses this question through the example of Macau, a southern Chinese city that was a Portuguese colony from the s until Urbanization was central to development in late imperial China. Yet scholars agree it triggered neither Weberian urban autonomy nor Habermasian civil society. Using Nanjing as a central case, the author shows that, prompted by this contradiction, the actions and creations of urban residents transformed the city on multiple levels.
Micah S. Muscolino gives us a better understanding of the relationship between past ecological changes and present environmental challenges. We live in a world shaped by secularism—the separation of numinous power from political authority and religion from public political, social, and economic realms. This book explores the modern recategorization of religious practices and people and examines how state power affected the religious lives and physical order of local communities.
Defining Engagement: Japan and Global Contexts, - Presenting fresh insights on the internal dynamics and global contexts that shaped foreign relations in early modern Japan, Robert I. Hellyer challenges the still largely accepted wisdom that the Tokugawa shogunate, guided by an ideology of seclusion, stifled intercourse with the outside world, especially in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
This volume explores commercial relations between the U. Investigating the late 16th through the 19th century, this work looks at the shifting boundaries between the Choson state and the adherents of Confucianism, Buddhism, Christianity, and popular religions. It counters the static view of the Korean Confucian state and elucidates its relationship to the wider Confucian community and religious groups. The authors adopt a more inclusive, pluralistic approach that stresses the complex relations among colonialism, modernity, and nationalism. Hyung Il Pai examines how archaeological finds from Northeast Asia have been used in Korea to construct a myth of state formation emphasizing the ancient development of a pure Korean race that created a civilization rivaling those of China and Japan.
He shows that the Korean state was formed far later with influences from throughout Northern Asia. A New History of Korea offers Western readers a distillation of the best scholarship on Korean history and culture from the earliest times to the student revolution of They are the earliest written vernacular narratives in China and are thus extremely important in the history of Chinese language and literature.
Lurid depictions of sex and impotence, themes of emperor worship and violence, the use of realism and myth--these characterize the fiction of Mishima Yukio and Oe Kenzaburo. Napier discovers surprising similarities as well as provocative dissimilarities in the work of two writers of radically different political orientations. Timothy Brook studies three widely separated and economically dissimilar counties.
He draws on rich data in monastic gazetteers to examine the patterns and social consequences of patronage. In the first book-length treatment in English of this art form, Pihl traces its history from roots in shamanism and folktales through its 19th-century heyday and discusses its evolution in the 20th century. This important new study explores the impact of Neo-Confucianism on Korean society and politics between the fourteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Population, Disease, and Land in Early Japan, — Wayne Farris has developed the first systematic analysis of early Japanese population, the role of disease in economic development, and the impact of agricultural technology and practices. Richard Davis has expertly crafted a stirring narrative of the last years of Song, focusing on loyalist resistance to Mongol domination as more than just a political event. Seen from the perspective of the conquered, the phenomenon of martyrdom reveals much about the cultural history of the Song.
The realignment of the Chinese social order that took place over the course of the Sung dynasty set the pattern for Chinese society throughout most of the later imperial era. This study examines that realignment from the perspective of specific Sung families, using data on two groups of Sung elites—the grand councilors who led the bureaucracy and locally prominent gentlemen in Wu-chou in modern Chekiang.
Unlike traditional Japanese literature, which has a rich tradition of comedy, modern Japanese literature is commonly associated with a high seriousness of purpose. Although it focuses on content and structure, it also treats the social context of these works, as well as their transmission and ritual use. By examining literary archetypes, the titles of paintings, contemporary inscriptions, and the historical context, Alfreda Murck shows that certain paintings expressed strong political opinions--some transparent, others deliberately concealed.
This volume analyzes the representation of gender and desire in elite, male-authored literary texts in China dating from roughly B. While specialized studies in Chinese literature multiply, an adequate history of Chinese literature based upon such studies has still to be written. Most of the eight articles reprinted in this volume have been unavailable for some time, and their reissue has been undertaken to fulfill a persistent demand. This small but comprehensive dictionary contains 7, Chinese characters and , compounds taken from the classics, general literature, magazines, and newspapers.
This book reproduces a rare printed text of the Bolor Erike Chaplet of Crystals , written in the 18th century but preserving a number of recitals relating to Chinggis Qaghan and his line and to the history of the Mongols under the Chinese Ming dynasty. A thorough textual and historical analysis is included. Based on an extensive study of Jianyang imprints, genealogies of the leading families of printers, local histories, documents, and annotated catalogs and bibliographies, Printing for Profit is not only a history of commercial printing but also a wide-ranging study of the culture of the book in traditional China.
In medieval Japanese literature, the practices of initiation ceremonies and secret transmissions found in esoteric Buddhism began to be incorporated into the teaching of waka poetry. The main figure in this development was 13th-century poet Fujiwara Tameaki, whose commentaries transformed secular texts into allegories of Buddhist enlightenment.
By treating the issues of cosmology, sacrifice, and self-divinization in a historical and comparative framework that attends to the contemporary significance of specific arguments, Puett shows that the basic cosmological assumptions of ancient China were the subject of far more debate than is generally thought. As traced in Words Well Put , the vision of poetic competence evolved for over a millennium from calculated performances of inherited words to sincere passionate outbursts to displays of verbal wit combining calculation with the appearance of spontaneity. This book tells the story of the development of poetic competence to uncover the complexity of the concept and to identify the sources and exemplars of that complexity.
As descendants of the great courtier-poets Fujiwara no Shunzei — and his son Teika — , the heirs of the Reizei house can claim an unbroken literary lineage spanning over eight centuries. Carter combines family history, literary criticism, and historical research in a coherent narrative tracking the evolution of the Reizei Way. Using an interdisciplinary approach drawing on the research of archaeologists, anthropologists, and religious, social, and art historians, this book seeks to recover the motivations behind the creation of religious art, including temple buildings, sculpture, and wall paintings.
The Liang dynasty — was among the most brilliant and creative periods in Chinese history and is among the most underestimated and misunderstood. This book contextualizes the literary culture of this era, exploring the literary works themselves, the processes of literary production, and the intricate interactions of religion and literature. This study shows how ruxue has been conceived in order to assess its achievements. This study examines the dialogues created among the texts and images in Lingyan ge from multiple perspectives. Liu Zhi ca. His Tianfang xingli Nature and Principle in Islam , the Chinese-language text translated here, focuses on the roots or principles of Islam.
In the sixteenth century, European missionaries brought a foreign and global religion to China. Converts then transformed this new religion into a local one. Drawing extensively on vernacular sources in Japanese, Chinese, and Korean, this book analyzes the most active of these contact nebulae: semicolonial Chinese, occupied Manchurian, and colonial Korean and Taiwanese transculturations of Japanese literature. He also places the story of modern childhood within a broader social context—the emergence of a middle class in early twentieth century Japan.
In , a Japanese diplomatic mission set out for Silla, on the Korean peninsula. The envoys met with adverse events and returned empty-handed. Featuring deft translations and incisive analysis, this study investigates the poetics and thematics of the Silla sequence, uncovering what is known about the actual historical event and the assumptions and concerns that guided its re-creation as a literary artifact and then helped shape its reception among contemporary readers.
For centuries, readers of Tao Qian have felt directly addressed by his poetic voice. This theme in the reception of Tao Qian, moreover, developed alongside an assumption that Tao was fundamentally misunderstood during his own age. How would Tao Qian have anticipated that his readers would understand him? Sovereignty is based on control of territory. This book uses Song China to explain how a pre-industrial regime organized itself spatially in order to exercise authority.
On more than a thousand occasions, the Song court founded, abolished, promoted, demoted, and reordered jurisdictions in an attempt to maximize the effectiveness of limited resources in a climate of shifting priorities, to placate competing constituencies, and to address military and economic crises. This study aims to engage the textual realities of medieval literature by shedding light on the material lives of poems during the Tang, from their initial oral or written instantiation through their often lengthy and twisted paths of circulation.
Yet Tang poetic culture was based on hand-copied manuscripts and oral performance. We have almost no access to this poetry as it was experienced by contemporaries. A discharged official in mid-Ming China faced significant changes in his life. This book explores three such officials in the sixteenth century—Wang Jiusi, Kang Hai, and Li Kaixian—who turned to literary endeavors when forced to retire. Instead of formal writing, however, they engaged in the stigmatized genre of qu songs , a collective term for drama and sanqu. As their efforts reveal, a disappointing end to an official career and a physical move away from the center led to their embrace of qu and the pursuit of a marginalized literary genre.
After their retirements, these three writers became cultural leaders in their native regions. Anderson argues that shifts in the gender system led to contradictory consequences for women. Ancestral ritual in early China was an orchestrated dance between what was present the offerings and the living and what was absent the ancestors. This study is a history of the early Chinese ancestral cult, particularly its cognitive aspects. Ancestor worship was not, the author contends, merely mechanical and thoughtless. Rather, it was an idea system that aroused serious debates about the nature of postmortem existence, served as the religious backbone to Confucianism, and may even have been the forerunner of Daoist and Buddhist meditation practices.
Emperor Taizong r.
Incorporations — University of Minnesota Press
The author highlights the relationship between historiography and the literary and rhetorical strategies of sovereignty, contending that, for Taizong, and for the concept of sovereignty in general, politics is inextricable from cultural production. But just what are these texts? Scholars have often approached them as philosophy, but these writings have also been studied as literature, history, and anthropological, religious, and paleographic records.
How should we translate these texts for our times? Dennis J. Frost traces the emergence and evolution of sports celebrity in Japan from the seventeenth through the twenty-first centuries. Frost explores how various constituencies have repeatedly molded and deployed representations of individual athletes, revealing that sports stars are socially constructed phenomena, the products of both particular historical moments and broader discourses of celebrity.
The motives behind these changes, the nature of the reforms, and their effects upon the economy and political life of countryside and city are here analyzed by five political scientists and five economists. In this stimulating work, twelve China scholars examine that troubled and changing relationship. They deal with the effects of the more materialistic and individualistic reward system on both public and private life in the countryside and in urban settings and the new expectations that economic changes engendered.
go site This book documents an Islamic—Confucian school of scholarship that flourished—mostly in the Yangzi Delta—in the 17th and 18th centuries. Drawing on previously unstudied sources, it reconstructs the network of Muslim scholars responsible for the creation and circulation of a large corpus of Chinese Islamic written material—the so-called Han Kitab.
With references to some 50, articles, 17, books, 4, chapters in books, 7, dissertations, and 4, reviews, The Harvard Korean Studies Bibliography is the largest listing of Western-language publications on Korea available in CD format. These studies examine writings by Protestant missionaries in China from to Nine historians contribute to a composite picture of the missionary pioneers, the literature they produced, the changes they sustained through immersion in Chinese culture, and their efforts to interpret that culture for their constituencies at home. The Missionary Enterprise in China and America.
For more than a century missionaries were the main contact points between the Chinese and American peoples.
Here, fourteen contributors studying both sides of the missionary effort, in China and in America, present case studies that suggest conclusions and themes for research. Irwin Hyatt seeks to discover why only some Americans placed among Chinese will find friends and a new appreciation of life. Until now Japanese military history in the thirties has been viewed largely from the standpoint of the army.
Stephen Pelz corrects this imbalance. After , the Japanese Navy made significant technological advances, withdrew from the disarmament system during the Second London Naval Conference of , and began a program of secret expansion. This is the first full-length critical study of a major period of Chinese poetry to appear in a Western language.
During two crucial years when his movements were being initiated, Mao Zedong addressed various Party groups behind closed doors to explain the new policies and exhort compliance. Recorded at the time and collected for limited circulation in the s by his admirers, the speeches, question-and-answer sessions, and letters here translated have never before been published in China or the West. Introductory essays by Roderick MacFarquhar , Benjamin Schwartz , Eugene Wu , Merle Goldman , and Timothy Cheek provide a context for evaluating and interpreting the nineteen texts translated in this volume.
This study analyzes New Theses Shinron by Aizawa Seishisai — and its contribution to Japanese political thought and policy during the early modern era. Remembered today primarily as a poet, calligrapher, and critic, the protean Su Shi was an outspoken player in the contentious politics and intellectual debates of the Northern Song dynasty.
In this comprehensive study, Ronald C. Drawing on varied archaeological and archival sources, David B. Lurie highlights the diverse modes and uses of writing that coexisted in Japan between the first and eighth centuries. This book illuminates not only the textual practices of early Japanese civilization but also the comparative history of writing and literacy in the ancient world.
Yet policymakers have managed the fastest sustained economic expansion in world history. This book shows that many contemporary techniques of governance have their roots in experimental policy generation and implementation dating to the revolution and early PRC. The political fragmentation and constant warfare of medieval Japan did not necessarily inhibit economic growth.
Tian , or Heaven, had been used in China since the Western Zhou to indicate both the sky and the highest god. Examining excavated materials, Lillian Tseng shows how Han-dynasty artisans transformed various notions of Heaven—as the mandate, the fantasy, and the sky—into pictorial entities, not by what they looked at, but by what they looked into.
This volume presents an energetic exchange of views on the topic. In seventeenth-century China, the theater began to occupy an important ideological niche among traditional cultural elites. Notions of performance and spectatorship came to animate diverse aspects of literati cultural production. In Worldly Stage , Sophie Volpp sheds new light on the capacity of drama to comment on the cultural politics of the age. Sonia Ryang casts new light on the study of North Korean culture and society by reading literary texts as sources of ethnographic data. Ryang focuses critical attention on three central themes—love, war, and self—that reflect the nearly complete overlap of the personal, social, and political realms in North Korean society.
- 222-0: The Story Behind Americas Zaniest College Football Game;
- Centre for Film and Screen.
- Incorporations : race, nation, and the body politics of capital.
- Landmark Speeches of National Socialism (Landmark Speeches: A Book Series)?
Fraleigh, Matthew George, Timothy S. Lawson, Konrad M. Rubinfien, Louisa Yang, Daqing. Originally published simultaneously in Chinese and Japanese in , this volume brings to English-language readers the fruits of a critical long-term project by Chinese and Japanese historians addressing contentious issues in their shared modern histories. This study revolves around the poet Huang Tingjian — , who wrote at the height of one of the most transformative periods in Chinese literary history, the Northern Song — Wang examines how the emerging print culture of the period shaped the poetic theory and practice of Huang and the Jiangxi School of Poetry he founded.
This book explores two important moments of dislocation in Chinese history, the early medieval period — CE and the nineteenth century. Xiaofei Tian juxtaposes a rich array of materials from these two periods in comparative study, linking these historical moments in their unprecedented interactions, and intense fascination, with foreign cultures.
Examining the transnational film star system and the formations of historically important stars, Making Personas casts new light on Japanese modernity from the s to s. Huang shows how Daoist image-making goes beyond the usual dichotomy of text and image to incorporate writings in image design. Cultural Revolution Culture, often denigrated as pure propaganda, was liked not only in its heyday but continues to be enjoyed today.
Empire of the Dharma: Korean and Japanese Buddhism, — Hwansoo Ilmee Kim explores the dynamic relationship between Korean and Japanese Buddhists in the years leading up to the Japanese annexation of Korea. Conventional narratives portray Korean Buddhists as complicit in the religious annexation of the peninsula, but this view fails to account for the diverse visions, interests, and strategies that drove both sides.
Jung-Sun N. Han examines the role of liberal intellectuals in reshaping transnational ideas and internationalist aspirations into national values and imperial ambitions in early twentieth-century Japan. Detective Fiction and the Rise of the Japanese Novel, — Satoru Saito examines the similarities between detective fiction and the novel in prewar Japan. Courtesans, Concubines, and the Cult of Female Fidelity. Courtesans, Concubines, and the Cult of Female Fidelity traces changing gender relations in China from the tenth to fourteenth centuries.
Strict decrees on the observance of death were part of the myriad laws enacted under the Tokugawa shogunate to control nearly every aspect of Japanese life. Hirai explores how this class of legislation played an integrative part in Japanese society by codifying religious beliefs and customs the Japanese people had cherished for generations. Tracing law regimes from Edo to Meiji, Flaherty shows how the legal profession emerged as a force for change in modern Japan, founding private universities and political parties, and contributing to twentieth-century legal reform.
Buddhism, Unitarianism, and the Meiji Competition for Universality. In the late s, Japanese leaders invited Unitarian missionaries to Japan to further modernization. In Four Cries of a Gibbon by the late-Ming dynasty playwright Xu Wei, characters move between life and death, and male and female, as they seek to articulate who they truly are. The earliest anthology of Chinese poetry, the Book of Poems has served as an ideal of literary perfection and also a major subject of literary criticism since imperial times. Bruce Rusk unravels the competitive, mutually influential relationship through which classical and literary scholarship on the poems co-evolved from the Han dynasty to the Qing.
A Comprehensive Manchu-English Dictionary. With hundreds of new entries and a new introduction on pronunciation and script, it will become the standard English-language resource on the Manchu language. Income Inequality in Korea explores the relationship between economic growth and social developments over the last three decades. Analyzing equalizing trends in the s to early s and reversals since the — financial crisis, the authors examine the growing gap between rich and poor in Korea and offer solutions for reducing inequality. One of the central literary texts of the Heian period — , Tales of Ise has inspired extensive commentary.
Newhard reveals the ideological and aesthetic issues shaping criticism over the centuries as the audience for classical Japanese literature expanded beyond the aristocracy. Arguing that this radical movement forms one of the intellectual foundations of modern Japan, Konishi offers a new approach to Japanese history that challenges Western narratives. A re-reading of modernist fiction within the imperial context, it sheds new light on the relationship between political discourse and aesthetics. The dominant literary genre in Song dynasty China, shi poetry reflected profound changes occurring in Chinese culture from — Michael A.
Fuller traces the intertwining of shi poetry and Neo-Confucianism that led to the cultural synthesis of the last years of the Southern Song and set the pattern of Chinese society for the next six centuries. David M. Robinson explores how grand displays like the royal hunt, archery contests, and the imperial menagerie were presented in literature and art in the early Ming dynasty. He argues these spectacles were highly contested sites where emperors and court ministers staked competing claims about rulership and the role of the military in the polity.
After the fall of the Qing dynasty, many declared the classical Chinese poetic tradition dead. In Modern Archaics, Shengqing Wu draws on extensive archival research into the poetry collections and literary journals of two generations of writers to challenge this claim and demonstrate the continuing significance of the classical form.
The rapid rise and fall of the southern kingdom of Wu inspired many memorials in the former capital city of Suzhou, including the building of temples, shrines, and monuments. Analyzing the history of Wu as recorded in ancient Chinese texts and literature, Olivia Milburn illuminates the cultural endurance of this powerful but short-lived kingdom. An exception to the rule that the first-rank poets in premodern China were men, the woman poet Li Qingzhao s occupies a crucial place in Chinese literature.
Ronald C. Egan challenges conventional thinking about Li, examining how critics tried to accommodate her to cultural norms from late imperial times into the twentieth century. This book is about the losers of the Meiji Restoration and the supporters who promoted their legacy. Facing the Monarch examines the role of rhetoric in shaping the dynamic between Chinese ministers and monarchs in the era between the Spring and Autumn period and the later Han dynasty. Essays analyze classical Chinese works to provide fresh perspectives on the impact of political circumstances on modes of expression.
Examining a body of understudied literary and cultural output in mainland China and elsewhere after World War II, Xiaojue Wang investigates how writers responded to these shifts to shape a new Chinese subjectivity in their works. Using memoirs, letters, travelogues, land registers, and other documents, David Spafford analyzes the relationships of the eastern elites to the space they inhabited. Focusing on three turning points—the creation of the development state in the s, democratization in , and the economic crisis— Jongryn Mo and Barry R.
Weingast show how Korea sustained growth by resolving crises in favor of greater political and economic openness. Only the second book-length English-language study of Yanagita, this book moves beyond his pioneering work in folk studies to reveal the full range of his contributions as a public intellectual. Hiraku Shimoda places the origin of modern Japanese regionalism in the tense relationship between region and nation in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.